News from the Chairman
16 December 2020
As you can read below, the PalArch Foundation started its publishing activities 17 years ago. Initially, there were two journals, PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology (PJAEE; ISSN 1567-214X) and PalArch’s Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology (PJVP; ISSN 1567-2158). Some time later, another journal, PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Northwest Europe (ISSN 15733939), was established.
The journals were among the earliest peer-reviewed free-access online journals in the fields. Since the inception there have been numerous papers, book reviews and scientific discussion published in it.
Recently, the Foundation’s journals, have been taken over by OAText. The new owner widened the scope of PJAEE and altered the procedures. PJAEE is thus not exclusively publishing Egyptology-related material anymore. The published work, however, remains accessible for free in the archive on the renewed website (but see below).
Though the journals remain accessible, the PalArch Foundation decided to offer a full list of publications on this new webpage (see below). We will, eventually, offer all published material by the Foundation, thus including book reviews, the Newsletters (ISSN 1872-4582) and the Proceedings (ISSN 1567-2166). The Foundation continues its other work, including the support of Munro’s Archive Project (MAP).
We would like to take this opportunity to express our sincere gratitude to the Foundation’s board and the members of the editorial board for their commitment over the years and thank the authors for entrusting us to publish their material. We hope that the journals will continue to flourish under OATExt’s new editorial board, and that you will enjoy the new materials that will appear under the new management.
Chairman PalArch Foundation
The Foundation’s Objectives
The goals of the Foundation are to stimulate scientific research in general, and of vertebrate palaeontology, archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology (the Foundation’s name is derived from these two discliplines) and the archaeology of Northwest Europe (Early Palaeolithic to the Medieval period) in particular. Another goal is stimulating research and improving the interaction between researchers in these disciplines. [spoiler]
The Foundation wants to help to consolidate or improve the level of science and focuses especially, but certainly not exclusively, on young scientists without an established position in the scientific world. Further attention is on researchers from those countries that have, regardless for which reason, less possibilities to do research and to publish. Provoking discussion with other researchers around the world offers (young) scientists the possibility to get in contact, develop themselves and stimulate open scientific discussion in general. Furthermore, researchers are given the opportunity to link with knowledge elsewhere.
We aim at close collaboration, not only with museums and other institutes all around the world, but also with other journals.
The Foundation is an independent operating foundation and is not politically engaged. We are of the opinion that true science should not be influenced by politics nor be frustrated by political situations. [/spoiler]
The PalArch Foundation web based Netherlands scientific journals
The PalArch Foundation wanted to achieve its goals primarily (but not exclusively) by publishing open access, double blind peer reviewed, online scientific journals (PalArch’s Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology [PJVP; ISSN 1567-2158], PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology [PJAEE; ISSN 1567-214X] and PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Northwest Europe [PJANE; ISSN 1573-3939]), that differ from standard journals in its own approach of publishing scientific literature. In 2020 these three journals were transfered to the new owner Open Access Text Ltd. [spoiler]
Due to delays in the publication process, articles can be updated even before they have been printed. Unfortunately, this occurs rather frequently. It is obvious that such articles contribute only little to scientific discussion. Furthermore, publishing can be expensive; editors often require payment for larger manuscripts. Publications are subject to several limitations as well: some journals only consider your work if you are a member of some (expensive) society, there are limits to the amount of photographs, illustrations and so on. Many renowned journals are interested only in the most exciting discoveries, and often less or not interested in research with a lower publicity-rate or what they consider to be of ‘less scientific importance’. Catalogues, descriptions, excavation reports etc. are difficult to publish in journals. Finally, if you would like to own a publication, you need to have a expensive subscription or buy an expensive scientific publication.
The PalArch Foundation offers possibilities for fast, scientific and accessible publication. Although scientific publications form the major part of the magazine, articles of a more general nature are equally welcome. Submission is accepted from professionals in their field (by education or experience). [/spoiler]
Founding and Board
The PalArch Foundation was founded on 28 March 2003 in Rotterdam (notary’s office Gregoire, Dorpsweg 203, 3082 LM) by A.J. Veldmeijer, S.M. van Roode, E. Endenburg (= first board) and G. Kuhn. The file number is ® 2003 07 23 01 and it is deposited at the Chamber of Commerce (Kamer van Koophandel), registration number: 34188508. If you are interested in the regulations of the PalArch Foundation, you can contact the Chamber of Commerce, De Ruyterkade 5, postbox 2852, 1000 CW, Amsterdam, 0031 (0)20 5314000.
Currently, the board consists of:
André J. Veldmeijer (chairman)
Erno Endenburg (Secretary)
A large number of papers have been published by the Foundation during the years 2003-2020 in the Foundation’s PJVP, PJAEE and PJANE. Other publications by the Foundation include the Newsletter (published between 2003 and 2009) and Proceedings (published between 2003 and 2006). Below, all publications are listed alphabetically on author. Papers published in the journals are free to download from the website www.palarch.nl. The proceedings and Newsletters can be downloaded below.
Author, Year, Issue, Page Nos., Title, Abstract
Andrews, C.A.R. 2004: 1, 2: 17-20. An unusual inscribed amulet.
Amulets in the shape of an obelisk are surprisingly rare; one which is inscribed with the names and titles of its owner may well be unique. Even the titles themselves, firmly dated by the amulet’s form, are otherwise unknown.
Bearman, G. & W.A. Christens-Barry. 2009: 6, 7: 1-20. Spectral imaging of ostraca.
By analogy with ancient texts, infrared imaging of ostraca has long been employed to help improve readings. We report on extensive spectral imaging of ostraca over the visible and near infrared. Spectral imaging acquires the complete spectrum for each pixel in an image; the data can be used with an extensive set of software tools that were developed originally for satellite and scientifi c imaging. In this case, the spectral data helps explain why infrared imaging works to improve text legibility (and why not in some cases). A better understanding of the underlying imaging mechanism points the way for inexpensive methods for taking data either in the field or at museums.
Bearman, G., M.S. Anderson & K. Aitchison. 2011: 8, 2: 1-7. New imaging methods to improve text legibility of ostraca.
We report on experiments on three new methods to improve text contrast for carbon ink ostraca. These are (1) Raman imaging, (2) Micro-focus XRF scanning and (3) exogenous contrast agents either to enhance the X-ray signal or create an optical fl uorescence signal. We tested all three methods with modern ‘stunt’ ostraca, made using a variety of carbonbased inks. In each imaging modality, the inks are clearly differentiated from the clay background. The exogenous contrast enhancement, in particular, suggests a variety of approaches to improving text legibility.
Brichieri-Colombi, S. 2015: 12, 1: 1-16. Engineering a feasible ramp for the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Although it is widely believed by archaeologists that the Great Pyramid was built using sleds hauled up ramps, no economically feasible ramp configuration has yet been found which would have permitted the placement of the 44 granite beams weighing up to 75 t and the 2.3 Mm3 of limestone blocks of the pyramid, in a period corresponding to the 27 year reign of Pharaoh Khufu. This paper focuses on engineering considerations: it proposes a simple configuration which is structurally sound and consistent with the archaeological evidence and the principles of ergonomics, mechanics and materials engineering, with a volume of only 6% of that of the pyramid. It demonstrates how the blocks, beams, supporting capstones and pyramidion could have been placed using only the tools found at Giza which date from the 4th Dynasty or earlier, within the constraints imposed by the topography of the Giza Massif.
Brichieri-Colombi, S. 2019: 16, 1: 1-21. The ramp at Hatnub quarry: No solution for pyramids.
Certain features of the ramp first uncovered by the IFAO/University of Liverpool team in 2015 at the Old Kingdom alabaster quarry at Hatnub have been heralded as a model for ramps used in construction of theGreat Pyramid of Giza. These features include a steep slope of up 20% (11⁰), inclined stairways on both sidesand post holes at regular intervals. The archaeologists hypothesize that these features allowed the haul team to be split into two groups, one hauling upslope with a direct pull, and the other downslope on ropes passed around the posts “acting as pulleys”, thus enabling a steep slope to be used. This paper is based on the physics of various arrangements and demonstrates that the hypothesis is untenable as the posts would have acted asbollards and provided no mechanical advantage. The posts were necessary because of the problems large haul teams would have had negotiating the curvature of the ramp. Interesting as the features at Hatnub are, they are unnecessary and undesirable on the ramps that would have been required for pyramid construction, and the hypothesis should be rejected.
Brichieri-Colombi, S. 2020. 17, 3: 1-20 A spurred spiral ramp for the Great Pyramid of Giza.
An easier and equally feasible configuration of spiral ramps for the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza (Brichieri-Colombi, 2015), would be for a spiral ramp extended as a spur tangential to the pyramid rather than orthogonal to it. The general arrangement, which could have been used for many other large pyramids as well, is similar to that proposed by Lehner (1985: 129-132), but without the mass of temporary works that Lehner envisaged. It avoids the need to create a trench over the body of the pyramid during construction, as proposed by Arnold (1991: 98), while respecting the constraints imposed by the available tools, workforce capabilities and design features of the pyramid. Finding the ideal configuration would not have been easy for the ancient builders, but this paper demonstrates how they could have done so with models. It also addresses the key construction issues associated with spiral ramps. An analysis of the construction effort required demonstrates that a ramp slope of 1:6 (9.5⁰) would have minimised the work involved. This finding suggests that pyramid construction hypotheses should be evaluated in terms of both feasibility and optimality to assess which are the most likely to have been adopted by ancient Egyptians.
Claus, B. 2005: 3, 1: 1-121. Introduction bibliographique à l’Égyptologie
Cockcroft, R. & S. Symons. 2013: 10, 3: 1-10. Diagonal star tables on coffins A1C and S2Hil: A new triangle decan and a reversed table.
We present updates for two ancient Egyptian diagonal star tables on coffins A1C and S2Hil. A1C reveals a new triangle decan, HAt sAbw, which brings the total number of triangle decans to 13 and the total number of unique triangle decans to 12 (because of the duplication of nTr DA pt). We discuss its relevance, why it has likely remained hidden for so long, and why it may have been lost on other star tables. S2Hil is re-examined with new photographs provided by the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim. We find several striking features of this table that make it unique among the current collection, and also present more information of this table not previously identified.
Cooney, K.M. & J. Tyrrell. 2005: 4, 1: 1-14. Scarabs in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Part I. Distributed propaganda or intimate protection?
This case study of 79 unprovenanced scarabs and scaraboid amulets in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art addresses glyptics, miniaturisation, distribution, and reception. Meaning and function can only be examined by broadening our investigatory criteria outside of the norm (typological and categorical) to included semiotic, anthropological and psychological factors, allowing an understanding of a scarab as a powerful social tool, not only tied to personal religious beliefs, but also to state propaganda, as well as state cultic powers, i.e., the king and his cosmic, ritualistic role in ancient Egyptian cosmology and society. The multiple grammatical and symbolic meanings of the abstractions found on scarab bases seem purposely intended to fulfil multiple functions at one and the same time.
Cooney, K.M. & J. Tyrrell. 2005: 4, 2: 15-98. Scarabs in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Part II. Catalogue. Online version.
This catalogue publishes 79 scarabs, scaraboids, and heart scarabs now in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). Each entry includes information on dating, dimensions, materials, description, and inscriptions, if any. Also included is a list of parallels of other scarabs or scaraboids with similar base decoration. The catalogue is divided according to the genre of the scarabs’ base decoration, of which there are seven: 1) King’s names, epithets, and images, 2) Apotropaic and divine iconography, 3) Personal titles and names, 4) Near Eastern motifs and adaptation, 5) Geometric and stylised patterns, 6) Heart Scarabs, and 7) Uninscribed scarabs.
Creasman, P.P., H. Touchane, C.H. Baisan, H. Bassir, R. Caroli, N. Doyle, H. Herrick, M.A. Koutkat & R. Touchan. 2017: 14, 3: 1-35. An illustrated glossary of Arabic-English dendrochronology terms and names.
This illustrated glossary presents a selection of essential terms and people in the study of dendrochronology, in Arabic and English. It is intended to make accessible an array of related literature to Arabic readers, in hopes that the application of tree-ring research will be more widely applied to archaeological studies, especially in Egypt.
Fradley, M. & S. Hardouin. 2019: 16, 2: 1-21. Remote sensing of endangered archaeology on Gebel Ataqah, Egypt.
This paper reports on a recent survey of a range of archaeological sites on and around Gebel Ataqah, a mountain area to the west of Suez. These sites were identified through the analysis of publicly available satellite imagery, principally Google Earth (GE), as part of the Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa (EAMENA) project, supplemented by historical references to the area and notes published by earlier travellers. The absence of existing archaeological data is due to a military presence in this area, from at least the 1950s, limiting access and exploration. The results of this survey show high levels of archaeological potential across large parts of Gebel Ataqah that require more detailed analysis on the ground, in an important, yet often underexplored, region. A series of major current and future threats to these archaeological sites are also identified which, alongside the presented survey data, will inform any future heritage management schemes.
Gosling, J., P. Manti & P.T. Nicholson. 2004: 2, 1: 1-12. Discovery and conservation of a hoard of votive bronzes from the Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara.
This paper outlines the discovery of a hoard of votive bronzes from the Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara, and gives the background to the original work at the site by Professor W.B. Emery. This collection of material gives an interesting insight into the range of objects offered at the shrines of the Sacred Animal Necropolis, and gives us a glimpse of just how popular these cults were. Also, the methods used in the conservation of these bronzes are presented.
Grajetzki, W. 2020: 17, 2: 1-29. The coffin of Nywty (Nuti), Saqqara.
The publication of a coffin found in 1982 by the excavations under the direction of the late Professor Peter Munro at Saqqara. e coffin dates to the 6th Dynasty and shows some rare features such as an offering list on the outside and the omission of gods’ names in the texts.
Haan, H.J. 2009: 6, 2: 1-22. Building the Great Pyramid by Levering. A Mathematical Model.
A review of the extensive literature on the building of the Egyptian pyramids reveals that so far this problem has not been treated in a systematic, quantitative way. The present study aims at filling this gap by means of an integrated mathematical model, taking into account the interaction between various activities involved, such as quarrying, transportation and building. I focus my attention on the largest pyramid, the one built by Khufu. The model simulates an efficient project co-ordination by balancing supply and demand of the building material, with all activities related to the growth of the pyramid and assuming a constant total workforce. This makes it possible to determine the effect of different building methods and of the productivity of the workers on the workforce required for the various tasks. In this paper only one building method has been considered, namely levering. Calculations have been carried out for two sets of input data, indicated as base case and maximum case. Assuming a project duration of 20 years with 2624 working hours per year, the workforce for this building method is estimated to range from 4 000 to 10 000 men directly involved in the building of the pyramid and the supply of the necessary material.
Harbort, J., Ö. Gürvit, L.A. Beck & T. Pommerening. 2008: 1, 1: 18. Extraordinary dental findings in an Egyptian mummy skull by means of Computed Tomography
An ancient Egyptian mummy skull from the Zoological Collection Marburg, Germany, was examined using computer assisted tomography. In this skull (referred to as Mummy skull no. 24) of a man who lived circa 50 BC we found three of his teeth in the cranial cavity. They had been retained after their loss caused by periodontal disease, and were inserted into the cranial cavity via a trans-sphenoidal hole, probably during the process of mummification. In this article we describe the reasons for the loss of these three teeth and consider possible motivations for this extraordinary conservation. We believe this is the first time such a procedure has been reported. It is discussed in an historical-religious context, emphasizing the mythological background. Furthermore, the medico-pharmaceutical methods to cure periodontal disease are described with reference to the ancient Egyptian medical papyrus Ebers – in the case of Mummy skull no. 24 one of the causes of loss of teeth.
Harrell, J.A. 2004: 1, 1: 1-16. Petrographic investigation of Coptic limestone sculptures and reliefs in the Brooklyn Museum of Art.
The so-called ‘Coptic’ limestone sculptures and reliefs of the Sheikh Ibada group were originally thought to date from Egypt’s Late Roman and Early Byzantine periods, but are now considered to be modern forgeries by most scholars. This conclusion is based on their anomalous stylistic characteristics. The limestone from which these objects are carved has not been previously studied, however. Such a study was undertaken for 31 objects in the Brooklyn Museum of Art’s Coptic collection. The objective was to locate the geographic source(s) of the limestone varieties through identification of the geologic formation(s) that supplied them. Most of the limestone almost certainly comes from Egypt’s Mokattam Formation, which is widely distributed within and beyond the Nile Valley from Cairo in the north to Maghagha 160 km to the south. The limestone for four of the objects could have come from other formations further south but may also originate from the Mokattam. It is within the part of Egypt where Mokattam outcrops occur that most of the demonstrably genuine Coptic limestone sculptures and reliefs have been excavated. The modern forgers who copied these ancient works used the same limestone and probably had their workshops within the Mokattam region.
Harrell, J.A. 2006: 4, 1: 1-12. Archaeological geology of Wadi Sikait.
Emerald, a green transparent variety of beryl, was one of the most highly prized gemstones in antiquity. The earliest known emerald mine is located in the valley of Wadi Sikait in Egypt’s southern Eastern Desert, where mining probably began toward the end of the Ptolemaic period in the 1st century BC. Most of the mining activity, however, dates to the Early and Late Roman periods (1st to mid–2nd centuries and 4th to early 6th centuries AD, respectively) with much reduced activity during the Middle Roman period (late 2nd to 3rd centuries AD). The Romans referred to emerald as smaragdus and named the Sikait region Mons Smaragdus or Emerald Mountain. An archaeological geology survey of Wadi Sikait was undertaken for the purpose of mapping the distribution of ancient mine workings, deducing the ancient mining methods, and describing the geologic occurrence of emerald. It was found that emerald and other green beryls occur within the contact zone between phlogopite schist and intrusive quartz and pegmatite veins. The workings, which were excavated in the softer phlogopite schist with flat–edged chisels and pointed picks, are mostly shallow open–cut trenches that follow the quartz/pegmatite veins. Some workings continue as much as 100 meter underground and are still largely unexplored. Steatite and quartz mica schist also occur in Wadi Sikait and were quarried by the Romans for building stone.
Harrell, J.A. 2017: 14, 2: 1-16. A preliminary overview of ancient Egyptian stone beads.
Stone beads are one of the most common artifacts of ancient Egypt, but despite this they have received little attention from scholars. The first and only attempt at a comprehensive study is the late 1930’s investigation of Nai Xia, who looked at beads in all materials at what is now the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, University College London, UK. The present survey builds on the work of Xia, and offers summaries on two aspects of stone beads: first, the relative amounts of rock and mineral varieties used during each period of Egyptian history; and second, the changes in bead form, perforation and polish through time for broad categories of stone.
Ikram, S., J. Kaiser & R. Walker. 2013: 10, 1: 1-31. The bioarchaeology of ancient Egypt. Abstracts.
Janssen, R. 2020: 17, 1: 1-11. The pleated dress of Nywty.
A description of a fragment of a pleated dress, discovered in situ in 1982 by the late Peter Munro and his team in the tomb of Nywty. An evaluation of its importance for our understanding of pleated dresses in ancient Egypt.
Krauss, R. 2009: 6, 1: 1-20. Der Berliner „Spaziergang im Garten“ – antiker Murks oder moderne Fälschung? Mit einem Exkurs über Heinrich Schäfers Ägyptenaufenthalt 1898-1901.
The relief slab Berlin 15000, popularly known as ‘the stroll in the garden’, which depicts a royal couple in Amarna style, was acquired around 1900 in Egypt on the art market, and thus lacks an archaeological provenance. Features in favour of its authenticity include the physical proportions of the figures, the anatomically ‘correct’ depiction of their feet, and their costume in general, though not in detail. Other features suggest the relief could be a forgery – for example, the fact that the figures are not typically ‘top-heavy,’ the use of the line customarily indicating the kilt for drawing the king’s lower left leg, the absence of compositional unity in a scene purportedly of the Amarna period, and iconographically unparalleled details of the queen’s sash and cloak. These and other factors, both pro and contra authenticity, are reviewed and considered.
Krauss, R. With a contribution by Victor Reijs. 2012: 9, 5: 1-95. Babylonian crescent observation and Ptolemaic-Roman lunar dates.
This article considers three questions associated with Ptolemaic-Roman lunar chronology: did the temple service begin on Lunar Day 2; were lunar phases determined by observation and/or cyclically; how accurate were lunar observations? In the introduction, Babylonian and modern observations of old and new crescents are analyzed to obtain empirical visibility lines applicable to Egyptian lunar observations.
Magli, G. 2010: 7, 5: 1-9. Archaeoastronomy and archaeo-topography as tools in the search for a missing Egyptian pyramid.
Among the royal pyramids of the 6th Egyptian Dynasty, that of the second king, Userkare, is missing. This Pharaoh, however, ruled long enough – two to four years – to plan his pyramid on the ground and have the workers excavate the substructure. Userkare’s unfinished tomb might therefore be buried in the sands of the Memphite necropolis, possibly with a copy of the Pyramid Texts carved on its walls. In the present paper, methods based on archaeo-topography and archaeoastronomy have been applied with the aim of finding the possible location of the building site of this monument.
Miatello, L. 2005: 1, 1: 1-12. The design of the Snefru pyramids at Dahshur and the Netjerikhet pyramid at Saqqara.
This investigation concerns the mathematical structure in the design of the north and south pyramids at Dahshur. The odd form of the Bent pyramid and the architectural layout of the two pyramids will be ascribed to an organic theory of the emerging solar religion, in a logical parallelism with the Great pyramid, and in the context of principals of sacred mathematics that in some aspects can be traced back to the plan of the Step pyramid at Saqqara.
Miatello, L. 2010: 7, 6: 1-36. Examining the Grand Gallery in the pyramid of Khufu and its features.
The explanation of the symmetrical features on the west and east sides of the grand gallery in the pyramid of Khufu has always been an intricate puzzle for researchers. The existence of such peculiar features is generally related to the function of parking the granite plugs, but only three or four granite blocks were presumably used to plug the ascending corridor, while a much larger number of slots and niches are found in the gallery. Previous interpretations of niches, slots, cuttings and grooves are unsatisfactory, and the present investigation focuses on important, formerly neglected aspects. The analysis of numerical patterns in the design of the grand gallery provides crucial evidence, and a new interpretation of the features in the gallery is, therefore, proposed, by considering the numerous variables implied in the problem.
Naguib, S.-A. 2007: 2, 1: 1-8. The shifting values of authenticity and fakes
The present article discusses the shifting values of authenticity and fakes. Using a biographical approach and the notion of things’ social life it examines an Egyptianised relief which according to the author is probably the work of the ‘Master of Berlin’, Oxan Aslanian, and investigates the wider context in which the object was conceived. The period under consideration is from the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century. The article goes on to explicate that fakes of ancient Egyptian art were circulated through multiplex social networks involving antiquities dealers, fakers and academics from different cultural backgrounds. By following the trajectories of these objects we may reconstruct their environments and map the web of social networks tied to them.
Paijmans, H. & A. Brandsen. 2010: 7, 2: 1-6. Searching in archaeological texts. Problems and solutions using an artificial intelligence approach.
Searching in documents using full text indices is a powerful tool for retrieving relevant portions of text. However, performance is impeded by ambiguity in texts: similar words may have totally different meanings according to context. This also is true if the words are numbers, periods and place names, especially in archaeological and historical contexts. A new way of indexing texts allows for better and easier searching. This system has been developed in a collaboration between the RCE (The Dutch National Service for Cultural Heritage)1 and the University of Tilburg. With Open Boek,2 it is possible to search on chronological and geographical expressions, as well as regular keywords. In the newest version of Open Boek a number of additions to the system have been made to further improve the functionality.
Reader, C.D. 2006: 2, 1: 1-13. Response to Vandecruys (2006). The Sphinx: dramatising data….and dating. – PalArch, series Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology 1, 1: 1–13.
In a previous paper (Vandecruys, 2006), the evidence presented by the current author for re–dating the Sphinx of Giza and a number of other structures present within the Giza necropolis has been reassessed. Following this re–assessment, Vandecruys has raised a number of objections to the current author’s thesis. The current paper provides a response to the criticism of Vandecruys and presents further arguments in support of Early Dynastic development at Giza, of which the Sphinx is considered to have formed an important element.
Reader, C.D. 2006: 3, 2: 12-25. Further considerations on development at Giza before the 4th Dynasty.
Two previous papers produced by Vandecruys have been critical of the theories of erosion of the Sphinx by rainfall run–off, previously advanced by Reader. In a final response to Vandecruys’ theory that the extant degradation can be attributed to shallow groundwater movement, Reader explains the limitations of Vandecruys’ groundwater model and further discusses the case for development at Giza before the 4th Dynasty.
Roode, van, S.M. 2003: 0, 0: 1-7. Observations on the ibw-tent: preliminary results
The preliminary results of a study on the Old Kingdom ibw-tent are presented. The physical appearance of the tent itself will be discussed as well as the function the tent might have had: it was both the entrance to the actual necropolis and the gateway to the netherworld.
Theis, C. 2017: 14, 1: 1-25. Egyptian funerary cones from various auctions and collections.
The article presents a list of funerary cones, which were not included in one of the last collections of the material. These objects were mainly collected from auctions, and the aim is to make these cones available for scholars.
Tomorad, M. 2004: 3, 1: 1-6. Egyptology in Croatia.
This paper presents a short overview of the history of Egyptology in Croatia. It describes the earliest scientific approaches to Egyptology and the latest project to disclose the Egyptian artefacts in Croatia.
Tomorad, M. 2004: 3, 2: 7-11. Croato-Aegyptica Electronica. Database of the Egyptian antiquities in Croatian museum and private collections.
In Croatia are more than 4.030 Egyptian artefacts in 20 museums and an unknown number in private collections. The basic aim of the project ‘Croato-Aegyptica Electronica’ (CAE) is to select relevant material presenting the Egyptian cultural heritage in Croatia both in institutions and private collections.
Tomorad, M. 2005: 2, 1: 1-33. The Egyptian antiquities in Croatia.
Approximately 5000 Egyptian artifacts (dated until the Arab conquest in 642 AD) are housed in Croatia. Most of these can be found in museums but various objects are housed in private collections. This presents these collections and shortly discusses them, giving information on for instance the historical backgrounds as well as the scientific value.
Vandecruys, G. 2006: 1, 1: 1-13. The Sphinx: dramatising data … and dating.
Geology and archaeology, carefully entwined, form the basis for deciding on a date of construction for the Great Sphinx at Giza. Over a decade after Robert Schoch’s controversial Pre–Dynastic proposal, Colin Reader takes up the debate again in the new millennium, and suggests a less extreme re–dating to the Early–Dynastic era. In tracing the data that forms the backbone for the ‘older Sphinx’ theories, I have found that a model of groundwater seepage leading to increased salt weathering rates explains the currently visible erosion morphology without requiring a change in the accepted chronology. On the archaeological side, several surrounding Giza monuments place an important limit on the possibility for an older Sphinx.
Vandecruys, G. 2006: 3, 1: 1-11. Response to Reader (2006): more geological and archaeological data on the Sphinx discussion.
In a review of the critiques raised by Vandecruys (2006), Reader (2006) clarifies his position on the geological and archaeological situation of the Sphinx, and adds extra data to support his case. The current paper will outline exactly how and why Reader’s response fails to attribute the Sphinx to the Early Dynastic era, and why a 4th Dynasty dating is still most likely when checked against the available evidence.
Veldmeijer, A.J. 2007: 1, 1: 1-36. Preliminary report on the leatherwork from Roman Berenike, Egyptian Red Sea Coast (1994–2000).
The excavations at Berenike during the 1994–2000 season yielded various finds of skin and leather. Leatherwork is one of the neglected fields in the study of ancient Egypt and it is therefore that this paper presents the leatherwork from this important site, even though the material has not been studied in as much detail as would be necessary. All discussed objects were excavated from early Roman rubbish layers.
Veldmeijer, A.J. 2009: 6, 4: 1-21. Studies of Ancient Egyptian Footwear. Technological Aspects.Part XV. Leather Curled-Toe Ankle Shoes.
In ancient Egypt sandals were a common commodity despite the fact that people must have been used to walking on bare feet. Shoes were less common though several types are known from the archaeological record. Despite the many examples of footwear, however, detailed studies are lacking. The present paper presents the closed shoes ‘curled-toe ankle shoes’, that are made of leather. The focus, as is usual in this series, lies on manufacturing technology; other topics are discussed in passing. A preliminary typology is proposed.
Veldmeijer, A.J. 2009: 6, 9: 1-27. Studies of ancient Egyptian footwear. Technological aspects. Part X. Leather composite sandals.
The tenth part in the series on the manufacturing technology of ancient Egyptian footwear (phase I of the Ancient Egyptian Footwear Project) presents 15 so-called ‘leather composite sandals’. These well made sandals, usually in bright colours and decorated, are known from New Kingdom contexts; they were not a common commodity. Although the focus is on the technological aspects, several other topics will be dealt with nonetheless, albeit in passing, among which the preliminary typology.
Veldmeijer, A.J. 2011: 8, 5: 1-31. Studies of ancient Egyptian footwear. Technological aspects.Part XIV. Leather eared sandals.
Leather Eared Sandals, i.e. sandals with pre-straps that are cut from the sole’s leather, are a well known category of sandals in ancient Egypt, mainly because the manufacturing is depicted in scenes that decorate tombs. Based on archaeological fi nds, we can recognise several subcategories and types. The present paper, as part of the Ancient Egyptian Footwear Project’s publication series, presents the technological details of this category of leather sandals. As usual in this series of papers, other topics are discussed in passing.
Veldmeijer, A.J. & S. Ikram. 2012: 9, 2: 1-14. First International Chariot Conference. Schedule and Abstracts.
Verhoogt, A.M.F.W. 2004: 1, 3: 21-25. Family relations in early Roman Tebtunis.
This paper explores two families and the ties that bind them in early Roman Tebtunis. Both families belonged to the village elite of Tebtunis, but seemingly to different ends of it. The reason that nonetheless both families saw fit to marry their children to one another could reflect a marriage strategy on both ends, which in turn could be interpreted as a reaction to the coming of Roman rule to Egypt.
Wild, J.P. & F. Wild. 2007: 2, 2: 1-9. The textiles from Sikait (Egyptian Eastern Desert).
The 2003 season at Sikait yielded ten textile fragments from six different late Roman contexts. They were not examined on site; but the photographs on which the descriptions below are based were of sufficiently fine resolution to enable most of the basic data to be extracted.
Willems, H.O. 2003: 0, 1: 8-24. The Belgian excavations at Deir al-Barsja, season 2003.
The mission of the KU Leuven at Deir al-Barsha realised its second season. Research in the quarries led to the discovery of hundreds of new inscriptions of the time of Nectanebo I and II. Much time was devoted to the study of a large graffito depicting forty, mostly Greek, ships. Another interesting discovery is the presence of quarry graffiti dated to years 10 and 11 of Akhenaten. In the area of the nomarchal tombs of the Middle Kingdom, the epigraphic record of tombs 8-10 was finished. The clearance in and in front of the tomb of Djehutihotep was pursued. This has led to a better understanding of the architecture of the monument, to the rediscovery of four tomb shafts of the subordinates of the nomarch, and to the recovery of parts of Djehutihotep’s tomb equipment. The excavation of some pits inside the tomb led to the discovery of decorated wall fragments. Further downhill Old Kingdom tombs on the northern flank of the wadi were excavated. Some tomb equipment of that date or slightly later has been found, but the area turns out to have been intensively reused in later periods as well. Interestingly, numerous tombs turn out to contain Second Intermediate Period burials containing ceramic of Upper Egyptian style. Some tombs also yielded burials of Graeco-Roman date. In and around the early Christian habitations much evidence was found of food consumption on a grand scale. The excavation in the plain led to the discovery of an untouched cemetery area. The tombs date to the early Middle Kingdom and at least one was undisturbed.
Yarmolovich, V. & E. Chepel. 2019: 16, 3: 1-27. Achaemenid influence on Egyptian pottery: New evidence from Memphis.
The authors analyse new pottery finds from recent excavations of the Centre for Egyptological Studies (Russian Academy of Sciences [CES RAS]) at Memphis. Three groups of archaeological material present particular interest for our discussion: 14 fragments of high-necked bowls, 33 beakers, and one table amphora. All these vessels were produced using Egyptian clays, but their shapes imitate Persian types. Comparison of these new finds with Near Eastern parallels provides insights into aspects of the political agenda of the Achaemenid rulers of Egypt and the extent of cultural interaction and exchange in the 6th-4th c. BCE. The article includes a catalogue of the new pottery (with detailed descriptions, dates, archaeological contexts, and drawings), and a catalogue of the clays that were used in their production.
Zahradnik, E. 2009: 6, 8: 1-7. Zur Darstellung eines Königs mit krankhaftem Beinbefund auf dem Relief „Spaziergang im Garten“.
The relief Berlin 15000 from the Amarna Period, known as ‘The Stroll in the Garden’ most likely shows Tutankhamun with an injury of the left leg. According to a specialist in accident surgery who also practices sports medicine, the relief shows a man leaning on an auxiliary crutch whose left leg seems to be injured, as he is holding the crutch on his right side. This assumption is further strengthened by the fact that in 2005, a new CT scan of the mummy of Tutankhamun diagnosed a fracture of the left leg. Tutankhamun was also the sole king to be represented with sticks in his hands, and a high number of sticks were among his grave goods. I elaborate on the unusual representation of a young king holding a staff and the potential medical consequences and complications of a broken leg.
Author, Year, Issue, Page Nos., Title, Abstract
Albers, P.C.H. 2005: 3, 1: 1-7. A new specimen of Nothosaurus marchicus with features that relate the taxon to Nothosaurus winterswijkensis.
A new incomplete skull of Nothosaurus marchicus was found in the Lower Muschelkalk of Winterswijk below the layers in which Nothosaurus winterswijkensis specimens are normally found. Although this skull resembles N. marchicus more closely than it does N. winterswijkensis it has several features which suggest an intermediate position. The specimen shares with N. marchicus, apart from general size, five teeth preceeding the maxillary fangs, the body of the vomer not extending backwards for a greater distance than the longitudinal diameter of the internal naris and the absence of an anteromedial process of the prefrontal. It shares with N. winterswijkensis however that the prefrontal excludes contact between the maxilla and the frontal, the fifth premaxillary fang being distinctly smaller and the jugal entering (or at least almost entering) the orbit. As all other specimens of N. marchicus originate from localities further to the east and the presumed transgression of the Anisian Muschelkalk is from east to west, it is assumed that N. marchicus is an older species than N. winterswijkensis. Phylogenetic interrelationships however have put N. winterswijkensis at a more basal position than N. marchicus, which has now definitively been proven wrong by the stratigraphy of the Winterswijk finds.
Albers, P.C.H. 2005: 3, 5: 33-36. A Placodontoid Jaw Fragment from the Lower Muschelkalk of Winterswijk (The Netherlands).
A jaw fragment of what was most likely a placodontoid marine reptile has been reported from the Lower Muschelkalk of Winterswijk. The fragment is too small for determination on the species level but the typical tooth replacement of the placodontoid family can just be recognised. The teeth however are far smaller than fitting to any of the known species if not belonging to a juvenile.
Beatty, B.L. 2006: 1, 1: 1-6. Rediscovered Specimens of Cornwallius (Mammalia, Desmostylia) from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.
Specimens initially collected but not reported from the original type locality of Cornwallius sookensis (Mammalia, Desmostylia) have been found at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC. Two femora and a partial skull were collected from the same locality as the holotype that was deposited by Ira Cornwall in the Royal British Columbia Provincial Museum in the 1920s. Though the partial skull is missing from the collection, the femora remain. They are small and lack epiphyses, possibly from breakage or immaturity. Muscle scars suggest that adductors, extensors and lateral rotators were strongly developed, indicating that their posture was of the normal mammalian upright nature. The sectioned end of USNM 11076 permits inspection of characteristics of the medullary canal and cortical bone thickness, which does not appear to be osteosclerotic.
Boessenecker, R.W. 2011: 8, 4: 1-30. A New Marine Vertebrate Assemblage from the Late Neogene Purisima Formation in Central California, Part I: Fossil Sharks, Bony Fish, Birds, and Implications for the Age of the Purisma Formation West of the San Gregorio Fault.
The Miocene to Pliocene Purisima Formation crops out in multiple transform fault bounded structural blocks in central California. As a result of poor exposure, strike slip fault offset, and uncertain intraformational correlations, some exposures of the Purisima Formation are not well dated. The San Gregorio section of the Purisima Formation occurs in the Pigeon Point Block, west of the San Gregorio Fault, along the coast of southern Halfmoon Bay. Ages based on invertebrate and diatom biostratigraphy support a Late Miocene to Early Pliocene age, while ash correlations indicate a much younger Middle to Late Pliocene (3.3-2.5 Ma) age. Abundant remains of marine vertebrates occur in the Purisima Formation. Recent fieldwork in the San Gregorio section identified a modest assemblage of 26 taxa, including sharks (Carcharodon carcharias, Carcharodon sp., Cetorhinus maximus, cf. Hexanchus, Isurus oxyrinchus, Pristiophorus sp., Squatina sp., and Sphyrna sp.), skates (Raja sp., cf. R. binoculata), bony fish (Paralichthys sp., Thunnus sp.), birds (Mancalla diegensis, Morus sp.), and 13 marine mammal taxa, including several new records for the Purisima Formation. The nonmammalian vertebrates of this assemblage are described herein. The vertebrate assemblage is utilized to evaluate previous biostratigraphic and tephrochronologic age determinations for the San Gregorio section. The stratigraphic range of Carcharodon carcharias, Raja sp., R. binoculata, Mancalla diegensis, and some of the marine mammals strongly indicate a Middle to Late Pliocene age for the upper and middle parts of the section, while a Late Miocene or Early Pliocene age is probable for the base of the section.
Burnham, D.A., B.M. Rothschild, J.P. Babiarz & L.D. Martin. 2013: 10, 5: 1-6 (Proceedings TerQua Meeting). Hemivertebrae as Pathology and as a Window to Behavior in the Fossil Record.
An extinct feline ecomorph Hoplophoneus was afflicted with a congenital anomaly (hemivertebra) not previously observed in cats and not previously reported in fossil mammals. The position of the hemivertebrae provided little opportunity for other cervical vertebrae to compensate for the resultant 40-degree deformity.
Chandler, R.M. 2012: 9, 2: 1-8 (Proceedings TerQua Meeting). A New Species of Tinamou (Aves: Tinamiformes, Tinamidae) from the Early-Middle Miocene of Argentina.
A new species of tinamou from the early-middle Miocene (Santacrusian), Santa Cruz Formation of Argentina is named. The new species is approximately 16 million year old and has an affinity with the modern genus Crypturellus based on the unique characteristics of the humerus, hence, the designation aff. Crypturellus. Fossil species and the zooarchaeological record of modern tinamous are given.
Cicimurri, D.J., C.N. Ciampaglio & K.E. Runyon. 2014: 11, 2: 1-36. Late Cretaceous Elasmobranchs from the Eutaw Formation at Luxapilila Creek, Lowndes County, Mississippi.
A diverse vertebrate assemblage was recovered from the Eutaw Formation along a stretch of Luxapalila Creek in Lowndes County, Mississippi. The assemblage is dominated by elasmobranchs but also includes osteichthyans (seven species), archosaurs (one crocodilian, two dinosaurs), and turtles (trionychid and chelonioid). Twenty one elasmobranch taxa were identified (14 selachians and seven batoids), including new species Meristodonoides multiplicatus, Lonchidion cristatum, and Cantioscyllium grandis. Our sample also enabled us to expand the known range of variation for some other poorly diagnosed species. The elasmobranch assemblage consists predominantly of species with presumed benthic habits (14), including the orectolobiform sharks and sclerorhynchid rays, whereas the seven lamniform sharks represent pelagic species. We believe that the sharks and rays inhabited a warm-water, nearshore marine environment.
Cuny, G. & S. Risnes. 2005: 3, 2: 8-19. The Enameloid Microstructure of the Teeth of Synechodontiform Sharks (Chondrichthyes: Neoselachii).
The so–called ‘triple–layered’ enameloid of neoselachian sharks is made of two main units: a superficial one and an internal one including the parallel–bundled enameloid and the tangled–bundled enameloid. The Triassic Synechodontiformes possess a parallel–bundled enameloid in which radial bundles are not very well–developed, contrary to what have been observed in more recent Synechodontiformes and other neoselachian sharks. The well–developed enameloid ridges that ornament the crown of many Synechodontiform sharks are superficial structures and show exactly the same organisation as in the cutting edges of more recent neoselachian sharks. We propose that two different mechanisms lead to the formation of ridges at the surface of the crown in neoselachian shark teeth. Ridges may result from an early mineralisation process during tooth development, or may mineralise near the end of the tooth development. Finally, on the basis of both tooth morphology and enameloid microstructure, the species “Hybodus” minor is transferred into the genus Rhomphaiodon.
Drees, M. 2004: 2, 1: 1-12. An Evaluation of the Cromerian Complex Period of The Netherlands.
The Cromerian complex of The Netherlands is evaluated, based on available literature, published over the past forty years. Contrary to popular believe, the Cromerian complex of The Netherlands is not known in sufficient detail to allow a reliable reconstruction of the climatic development over this period. This is mainly due to the short sequences of sediments, as well as a lack of firmly established correlations and absolute dating. The original assumption that the Cromerian complex is a period with four interglacial and three glacial cycles is not reflected in the oxygen isotope stages. However, the boundaries of the Cromerian complex have been established correctly; Cromerian I can be correlated with OIS 21 and a final interglacial can be correlated with OIS 11.
Drees, M. 2005: 1, 1: 1-46. An Evaluation of the Early Pleistocene Chronology of The Netherlands.
The Early Pleistocene subdivision of The Netherlands is evaluated, based on published research since 1950. The subdivision is a biostratigraphy, almost exclusively based on palynological research. Palaeomagnetic research provided a correlation with the palaeomagnetic timescale. The classical subdivision of the Early Pleistocene is based on a mosaic of short pollen sequences, mostly of unknown duration, position and age. The Pretiglian is reconsidered as a cool oscillation within the Pliocene. Re–evaluation leads to the conclusion that the age of the Pliocene–Pleistocene boundary, set at approximately 2.5 Ma is highly questionable. The position, duration and subdivision of the Tiglian stage is subject to serious doubts. The evidence related to the Eburonian, Waalian, Menapian and Bavelian is considered to be too limited to allow confirmation of the existence of any of these stages. Faunal data are too limited to add to our understanding of the Early Pleistocene. The Early Pleistocene of The Netherlands, its subdivision, climatic development and duration is considered poorly known.
Elewa, A.M.T. 2005: 3, 4: 30-32. Reply to Signore’s review on Elewa’s ’Morphometrics. Applications in biology and paleontology.
This short paper presents a reply on a book review, published for the first time in the April 2005 issue of www.PalArch.nl (the review can still be viewed at http://www.palarch.nl/Non_scientific/bookreview.htm). The editor of the book is the author of this reply.
Everhart, M.J. 2005: 2, 2: 15-24. Bite Marks on an Alasmosaur (Sauropterygia; Plesiosauria) Paddle from the Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) as Probable Evidence of Feeding by the Lamniform Shark, Cretoxyrhina mantelli.
The left front paddle of an unidentified elasmosaurid in the collection of the Fick Fossil and History Museum exhibits two groups of deeply incised grooves across the dorsal and ventral sides of the humerus that suggest a series of bites by the lamniform shark, Cretoxyrhina mantelli. The remains were discovered by George F. Sternberg in 1925 in the Smoky Hill Chalk Member of the Niobrara Chalk, Logan County, Kansas, USA. Archival photographs, along with Sternberg’s hand written note, document the condition of the specimen when originally collected. The specimen is significant because it preserves the first evidence of probable feeding by C. mantelli on an elasmosaurid, and because it represents the rare occurrence of an elasmosaurid in the upper Smoky Hill Chalk of western Kansas.
Everhart, M.J. 2005: 4, 3: 19-32. Elasmosaurid Remains from the Pierre Shale (Upper Cretaceous) of Western Kansas. Possible Missing Elements of the Type Specimen of Elasmosaurus platyurus Cope 1868?
When E.D. Cope described the type specimen of Elasmosaurus platyurus 1868 more completely in 1869, he noted that a number of dorsal vertebrae were missing, along with the gastralia, the limbs, and most of the skull. Although the military surgeon who discovered the remains, Dr. Theophilus H. Turner, made additional searches the missing material was never located. Interest in the specimen eventually faded as dinosaurs were discovered further west, and portions of the specimen, including the pectoral and pelvic girdles, were mysteriously lost. More recently, three collections of associated plesiosaur material, including dorsal vertebrae, ribs, gastralia, and large gastroliths were made from a second site near the type locality of E. platyurus. The additional material is curated in the Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Hays, KS, the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Lawrence, KS, and the Cincinnati Museum Center, Cincinnati, OH. Examination the more recently discovered remains in these three repositories, and comparisons with the those of the type specimen at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, a review of the letters and other historical documents related to the discovery of E. platyurus, and on–site evaluation of the stratigraphy of the both localities suggest that the more recently collected remains were originally part of the type specimen and were separated prior to burial when the floating carcass began to fall apart.
Everhart, M.J. 2004: 1, 1: 1-7. Late Cretaceous Interaction Between Predators and Prey. Evidence of Feeding by Two Species of Shark on a Mosasaur.
The fragmentary remains of a mosasaur discovered in the Smoky Hill Chalk Member (Late Coniacian) of the Niobrara Chalk of Gove County, Kansas, U.S.A., preserve a number of injuries consistent with scavenging by two species of lamnid shark. The mosasaur remains (FHSM VP-13746) were identified as cf. Ectenosaurus clidastoides and consisted of a continuous series of 21 dorsal vertebrae. No evidence was found of the anterior neck and skull, limbs or caudal vertebrae. A single cervical vertebra was located in front of the first dorsal and one posterior dorsal vertebra had been fractured prior to burial. Although still associated with the vertebral column, most of the ribs were severed or otherwise damaged. No residual of the cartilaginous sternum was found. Deep bite marks on several of the vertebrae, severed ribs and the tip of a large, embedded tooth are interpreted as evidence that the lamniform shark, Cretoxyrhina mantelli, had fed on the mosasaur remains. The spacing of the individual tooth marks (3 cm) indicate the bites were from a very large (estimated 5 m) shark. Lesser damage, including serrated bite marks and scrapes indicated that another shark species, Squalicorax falcatus, had also been involved. This specimen is important palaeoecologically because it documents a predator-prey relationship between these two species of sharks and mosasaurs, and because it provides further evidence that Cretoxyrhina and Squalicorax fed on large vertebrates in the Late Cretaceous seas of North America.
Farke, A. & C.A. Wilridge. 2013: 10, 2: 1-6. A Possible Pterosaur Wing Phalanx from the Kaiparowits Formation (Late Campanian) of Southern Utah, USA.
An isolated bone from the late Campanian-aged Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah is tentatively identified as the terminal wing phalanx (manual phalanx IV-4) from a pterosaur, representing the first report of this clade from the formation. The specimen is 60 mm long and hollow, with thin and delicate walls and expanded ?proximal and ?distal ends. This is consistent with anatomy reported for equivalent elements in pterodactyloid pterosaurs. Although the specimen cannot be more precisely identified, it is consistent with occurrences of pterosaurs in penecontemporaneous terrestrial depositional environments throughout western North America.
Fields, S.E., H.G. McDonald, J.L. Knight & A.E. Sanders. 2012: 9, 3: 1-19 (Proceedings TerQua Meeting). The ground Sloths (Pilosa) of South Carolina.
A summary of museum and literature records of ground sloths collected from South Carolina is presented. The ground sloth record in South Carolina consists of three genera, Eremotheirum with two species, Megalonyx with three species and Paramylodon with one species. Three of these species, Eremotherium eomigrans and Megalonyx leptostomus from the Blancan and Megalonyx wheatleyi from the Irvingtonian are new records for the state. An early Pliocene specimen of M. leptostomus is the earliest record of sloths from South Carolina. The fossil record of sloths in the state extends from the Pliocene (Blancan) through the Pleistocene (Late Rancholabrean) and is confi ned to sedimentary deposits on the Coastal Plain.
Foster, J.R. 2013: 10, 3: 1-11. Ecological Segregation of the Late Jurassic Stegosaurian and Iguanodontian Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation in North America: Pronounced or Subtle?
The Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of western North America has yielded a number of specimens assigned to the ornithischian dinosaurs Stegosaurus and Camptosaurus, and many of these specimens come from channel sandstone deposits. Six new specimens are recorded mostly from channel sandstones as well. Indeed, early analyses of site occurrences (reducing the effects of large single-site samples) suggested that Stegosaurus and Camptosaurus were more often found in channel sandstone deposits than other common Morrison Formation dinosaurs such as Camarasaurus or Diplodocus. This also indicated the possibility of ecological segregation of the former two genera from other herbivorous dinosaurs of the Morrison. Revisiting this question with additional data suggests the pattern may not be as strong as it once appeared. Analysis of occurrence data indicates that Stegosaurus and Camptosaurus occur in channel sandstone deposits slightly more frequently than the two sauropods, but statistical analysis of this pattern by either localities or individuals indicates little significance to the trend. However, Camptosaurus appears more strongly associated with channel sandstone deposits relative to other dinosaurs than does Stegosaurus. These results suggest that any ecological segregation of these genera was moderate, but that, if present, the segregation was more pronounced in Camptosaurus.
Hendrickx, C. & M.T. Carrano. 2016: 13, 2: 1-7. Erratum on “An Overview of Non-Avian Theropod Discoveries and Classification.”
In their recent publication on an overview of theropod discoveries and classification, Hendrickx and colleagues mistakenly attributed the earliest historical reports of nonavian theropods in North America and South America to Joseph Leidy in 1856 and Florentino Ameghino in 1899, respectively. Yet, theropod tracks from Massachusetts had already been reported by Hitchcock in 1836, and isolated theropod centra from Patagonia were described by Lydekker in 1893. We here provide additional information on the earliest theropod discoveries in Asia, America and Oceania. We also credit Thomas Holtz as being the first author to give a phylogenetic definition for the clade Dilophosauridae, and correct the phylogenetic definitions of the clades Allosauroidea and Megalosauria.
Hendrickx, C., S.A. Hartman & O. Mateus. 2015: 12, 1: 1-73. An Overview of Non-Avian Theropod Discoveries and Classification.
Theropods form a taxonomically and morphologically diverse group of dinosaurs that include extant birds. Inferred relationships between theropod clades are complex and have changed dramatically over the past thirty years with the emergence of cladistic techniques. Here, we present a brief historical perspective of theropod discoveries and classification, as well as an overview on the current systematics of non-avian theropods. The first scientifically recorded theropod remains dating back to the 17th and 18th centuries come from the Middle Jurassic of Oxfordshire and most likely belong to the megalosaurid Megalosaurus. The latter was the first theropod genus to be named in 1824, and subsequent theropod material found before 1850 can all be referred to megalosauroids. In the fifty years from 1856 to 1906, theropod remains were reported from all continents but Antarctica. The clade Theropoda was erected by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1881, and in its current usage corresponds to an intricate ladder-like organization of ‘family’ to ‘superfamily’ level clades. The earliest definitive theropods come from the Carnian of Argentina, and coelophysoids form the first significant theropod radiation from the Late Triassic to their extinction in the Early Jurassic. Most subsequent theropod clades such as ceratosaurs, allosauroids, tyrannosauroids, ornithomimosaurs, therizinosaurs, oviraptorosaurs, dromaeosaurids, and troodontids persisted until the end of the Cretaceous, though the megalosauroid clade did not extend into the Maastrichtian. Current debates are focused on the monophyly of deinonychosaurs, the position of dilophosaurids within coelophysoids, and megaraptorans among neovenatorids. Some recent analyses have suggested a placement of dilophosaurids outside Coelophysoidea, Megaraptora within Tyrannosauroidea, and a paraphyletic Deinonychosauria with troodontids placed more closely to avialans than dromaeosaurids.
Herrero, L. & A.A. Farke. 2010: 7, 2: 1-7. Hadrosaurid Dinosaur Skin Impression from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation of Southern Utah, USA.
Skin impressions from hadrosaurid dinosaurs are relatively common finds throughout the Cretaceous Western Interior of North America. A recently discovered specimen from the late Campanian-aged Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah is typical for hadrosaurs, with randomly arranged polygonal tubercles averaging around 4 mm in length and 3 mm in width. Based on the associated bones, these impressions likely originated on the thorax of the animal. In contrast with most previously published finds, the skin is not preserved in perfect articulation with the skeleton. This suggests a taphonomic mode in which the skeleton and soft tissues were partially disarticulated prior to burial.
Heteren, van, A.H. 2008: 5, 2: 1-19. Homo floresiensis as an island form.
Homo floresiensis is a small bodied hominin from the Indonesian island Flores. The type specimen, LB1, is believed to be a female of approximately 1 m or a bit more than 3 feet in length with a cranial capacity of around 400 cc. There is still no agreement on the cause of the small stature and small cranial capacity of LB1 and the associated individuals. Homo floresiensis displays several island adaptations, which also have been observed among the members of other typical island faunas, indicating that Homo floresiensis might very well have been an endemic island form. Homo floresiensis has morphology similar to that of a Homo erectus juvenile, since it has a high orbital, dental and brachial index, low humeral torsion, low tibial torsion and a high gonial angle. Additionally Homo floresiensis has shortened lower limbs. The features displayed by Homo floresiensis give an indication of the manner of dwarfing by paedomorphosis, which was by truncating growth through increase in the rate of skeletal ossification, possibly caused by hormonal changes.
Higgins, P. 2012: 9, 4: 1-20 (Proceedings TerQua Meeting). Climate Change at the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary: New Insights from Mollusks and Organic Carbon in the Hanna Basin of Wyoming.
Climate change at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is frequently regarded as among the best ancient proxies for the potential effects of modern climate change. Terrestrial sections recording this event are few, but essential in understanding the impacts of rapid global change on land-dwelling life forms such as humans. In the Hanna Formation, exposed in the Hanna Basin of south-central Wyoming, the PETM and associated climate change are recorded in lacustrine and fl uvial sediments bracketing the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. Isotopic analysis of abundant fossil mollusks and organic carbon reveal interesting trends in the warming during the PETM and the subsequent climatic recovery. Changes in sedimentary environment due to climate change or tectonic events may be distinguishable through isotopic study, helping to clarify the direct impact of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.
Hornung, J.J. 2020: 17, 1: 1-12. Comments on “Ornitocheirus hilsensis” Koken, 1883 – One of the Earliest Dinosaur Discoveries in Germany.
Based on a detailed morphological comparison of the original figures, the lost holotype of “Ornithocheirus hilsensis” is identified as the distal part of the proximal pedal phalanx from digit I of a large-sized theropod. The distinctness in the morphology of the distal epiphysis of this element from that present in the manus and in pedal digits II-IV of most theropods may have contributed to the ambiguous interpretation of this specimen in the course of discussion since the 1880s. Features that have been interpreted as indicating pneumaticity – that would support a pterosaur affiliation – can be alternatively explained by taphonomic and diagenetic processes. Aside of this unresolved question, the published information do not indicate the presence of any pterosaur synapomorphies. Although clearly a nomen dubium, “Ornithocheirus hilsensis” is a precious record of a large-sized theropod near the Valanginian/Hauterivian boundary of Central Europe. It is furthermore of significance as one of the historically earliest documented remains of a dinosaur from Germany.
Jacquemin, S.J., D.J. Cicimurri, J.A. Ebersole, M. Jones, Z. Whetstone & C.N. Ciampaglio. 2016: 13, 1: 1-20. Quantifying Heterodonty in the Late Devonian (Upper Famennian) Sharks Cladoselache and Ctenacanthus from the Ohio Shale, USA.
Differentiation of tooth size and shape within the jaw (i.e. heterodonty) is an expected pattern in the majority of Neoselachii sharks. Various forms of heterodonty may be observed within an individual set of jaws, which can be the result of tooth position (monognathic), upper or lower jaw position (dignathic), tooth file or developmental position (ontogeny), or between male and female in sex specific differences (gynandric). Heterodonty patterns result from natural selection as a functional linkage tied to feeding niche for both feeding performance and dietary diversity. However, the types and/or degree of heterodonty present in Devonian sharks such as Cladoselache and Ctenacanthus have not previously been discussed or quantified in the literature. The objective of this study was to analyze a number of associated dentitions from representatives of these two genera, all collected from the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale (upper Famennian; Upper Devonian), to test for, and quantify, various types of heterodonty within and across taxonomic lineages of early cladodont sharks. Geometric morphometrics and linear measurements were used to describe tooth shape and resulting axes and measurements were regressed with jaw position, tooth file position, and upper versus lower jaw to test for differentiation associated with various types of heterodonty. Teeth from Cladoselache and Ctenacanthus dentitions that were examined did not show any variation in tooth shape consistent with heterodonty. However, tooth size did vary slightly with jaw position and the presence of symphyseal teeth at the lower jaw symphysis does indicate differentiation between upper and lower jaws. Furthermore, the long period of tooth retention characteristic of these genera create a record of ontogenetic heterodonty within a tooth file observable as an increase in tooth size lingually. Although tooth shape did not significantly co-vary with jaw position in either taxa, significant morphometric differences between the two genera were evident. These findings strengthen the taxonomic validity of the genera and recognized species within these genera and provide further insights into the niche of these Devonian sharks.
Kaddumi, H.F. 2006: 3, 1: 1-14. A New Genus and Species of Gigantic Marine Turtles (Chelonioidea: Cheloniidae) from the Maastrichtian of the Harrana Fauna–Jordan.
Marine turtle fossils are extremely rare in the Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation of the Harrana Fauna in comparison to the relatively rich variety of other vertebrate fossils collected from this locality. This paper reports and describes the remains of an extinct marine turtle (Chelonioidea) which will be tentatively assigned to a new genus and species of marine turtles (Cheloniidae Bonaparte, 1835) Gigantatypus salahi n.gen., n.sp.. The new genus represented by a single well–preserved right humerus, reached remarkably large proportions equivalent to that of Archelon Wieland, 1896 and represents the first to be found from this deposit and from the Middle East. The specimen, which exhibits unique combinations of features is characterized by the following morphological features not found in other members of the Cheloniidae: massive species reaching over 12 feet in length; a more prominently enlarged lateral process that is situated more closely to the head; a ventrally situated capitellum; a highly laterally expanded distal margin. The presence of these features may warrant the placement of this new species in a new genus. The specimen also retains some morphological features found in members of advanced protostegids indicating close affinities with the family. Several bite marks on the ventral surface of the fossilized humerus indicate shark–scavenging activities of possibly Squalicorax spp.
Kumar, K. 2006: 1, 2: 7-13. Comments on ‘Early Eocene Land Mammals from Vastan Lignite Mine, District Surat (Gujarat), Western India’ by Bajpai, S. et al. Published in Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 50, 1: 101-113, 2005.
Bajpai et al.’s recent paper (2005a) describing an important new Early Eocene mammal fauna from the Cambay Shale of Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India has a number of errors related to identification, naming, definition, characterisation and description of new taxa, and measurements of dentitions etc. that need to be recorded and addressed. This contribution discusses and clarifies some of the errors and will be useful for understanding the real impact of the Vastan fauna in relation to the India-Asia collision, the mammalian palaeobiogeography and origin of modern placental mammals.
Maisch, H.M., M.A. Becker, B.H. Raines & J.A. Chamberlain. 2016: 13, 3: 1-22. Osteichthyans from the Tallahatta–Lisbon Formation Contact (middle Eocene–Lutetian) Pigeon Creek, Conecuh-Covington Counties, Alabama with Comments on Transatlantic occurrences in the Northern Atlantic Ocean Basin.
A disconformity and lag deposit that separates the Tallahatta and Lisbon Formations along Pigeon Creek near Red Level, Conecuh-Covington Counties, Alabama contains osteichthyan remains belonging to: Pycnodus sp.; Lepisosteus sp.; Albula sp.; Egertonia isodonta Cocchi, 1864; Cylindracanthus rectus Agassiz, 1843; Sphyraena sp.; Triciurides; T. sagittidens Winkler, 1874; Scomberomorus sp.; Ariidae gen. indet.; Ostraciidae gen. indet., and cf. Beryciformes. This fossil osteichthyan assemblage is similar to other contemporaneous nearshore faunas found throughout Alabama, the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, and elsewhere throughout the Northern Ocean Basin. The accumulation and concentration of osteichthyans between the Tallahatta and Lisbon Formations is the result of third order eustatic sea level fluctuation and reflects a complex taphonomic history of exhumation, transport, and reburial across a shallow, middle Eocene shelf. Wide spread distribution of osteichthyan genera found in the Pigeon Creek assemblage demonstrates the continuity of shallow marine shelf environments of the Northern Atlantic Ocean Basin during the middle Eocene and the utility of osteichthyans in regional and transatlantic stratigraphic studies.
Martin, L.D. 2012: 9, 1: 1-3 (Proceedings TerQua Meeting). Institute for Tertiary-Quarternary Studies (TER-QUA).
Meijer, H.J.M. 2004: 1, 2: 8-13. The First Record of Birds from Mill (The Netherlands).
Presented here is the first record of birds from the gravel pit Langeboom, in Mill, The Netherlands. Langeboom is considered to be of Pliocene age and therefore, this would be the earliest known fossil record of modern-type birds and the only ones from deposits earlier than Pleistocene. Two specimens, an isolated ulna and a fragment of a tarsometatarsus, resemble those of Lagopus sp. and Anas platyrhynchos. The third specimen, an undetermined fragment, is described as Aves indet. Owing to its fragmented state a reliable assignment to any of the recent families is not possible.
Nieuwland, I.J.J. 2004: 3, 2: 9-19. Gerhard Heilmann and the Artist’s Eye in Science, 1912-1927.
Gerhard Heilmann’s ‘The origin of birds’ from 1926 is a remarkable book. Written by an illustrator-cum-amateur-biologist, it gained worldwide authority almost immediately upon publication. It is demonstrated that Heilmann’s skills as an artist, and his ability to use illustration to support his argument, were crucial in gaining this status. Furthermore, turning away from the dramatic confrontational model of palaeontological illustration helped Heilmann’s cause and made his monograph the leading word on the subject for well over forty years.
Noè, L.F. & M. Gómez–Pérez. 2007: 2, 1: 1-9. Postscript to Everhart, M.J. 2005. “Elasmosaurid Remains from the Pierre Shale (Upper Cretaceous) of Western Kansas. Possible Missing Elements of the Type Specimen of Elasmosaurus platyurus Cope 1868?” – PalArch’s Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology 4, 3: 19–32.
The holotype is the single most important specimen in zoological taxonomy, and to avoid confusion, it must be the remains of a single individual. Re–evaluation of data presented to infer that three specimens collected between 1954 and 1998 are additional material of the holotype of Elasmosaurus platyurus, indicate there is no evidence these two sets of remains belong to the same individual, or the genus Elasmosaurus. Historical documents indicate the missing skeletal elements of the Elasmosaurus holotype (including dorsal vertebrae and gastralia) can be explained by factors such as weathering and collection failure. The relative absence of gastroliths, if originally associated with the animal, can be explained by the collecting methods employed, or the absence in 1867–1868 of a theoretical framework to explain their presence in a plesiosaur.
Panadés I Blas, X. 2005: 2, 1: 1-14. Diversity Versus Variability in Megaloolithid Dinosaur Eggshells.
Variability of dinosaur eggshell assigned to Megaloolithidae, from the Upper Cretaceous of Suterranya (Upper Campanian–Early Maastrichtian, Catalonia, South–Central Pyrenees), is described and compared with other Catalan, Argentinean, French, and Indian contemporaneous eggshells. Two–variable statistics using eggshell thickness and external diameter of eggshell units show discontinuous heterogeneity in the studied sample. Highly significant, stronger heterogeneity is also observed when comparing eggshell thickness from Suterranya to other neighbouring samples (Basturs, Coll de Nargó, Pioch Herbaut and Les Vignes) and India. Heterogeneity is interpreted as probably indicative of dinosaur polytypic diversity, instead of polymorphism of eggshell from one dinosaurian paleospecies. Variability distribution of eggshell thickness suggests a 15% coefficient of variation as the upper limit of a homogeneous intraspecific eggshell sample. The utility of eggshells as an indicator of nesting dinosaur diversity, particularly in the Catalan Pyrenees, is discussed.
Panadés I Blas, X. & R. Patnaik. 2009: 6, 1: 1-8. A Complete Crocodylian Egg from the Upper Miocene (Chinji Beds) of Pakistan and Its Palaeobiographical Implications.
The first fossil crocodylian egg from the Upper Miocene the Chinji Formation of the Siwalik Group of Pakistan is reported here. It represents a new locality, and the fi rst record of the order in the area. The specimen was uncovered in a fl uvial environment, and cannot be defined more accurately, because of the poor preservation of its structural levels, and lack of direct association to osseous remains.
Panadés I Blas, X., R.S. Loyal, H.H. Schleich & E. Llinás Agrasar. 2004: 3, 1: 1-8. Pristichampsine Cranial Remains from the Basal Redbed Facies of the Subathu Formation (Himachal Pradesh, India) and Some Palaeobiographical Remarks.
The first fossil ziphodont crocodile premaxilla and two isolated teeth referred to the Pristichampsinae are reported from the Eocene sediments of the Subathu formation (Himachal Pradesh, Northern India). They suggest that the Indian subcontinent had already collided with Eurasia by Early-Middle Eocene times.
Plas, van der, M. 2007: 1, 1: 1-121. A New Model for the Evolution of Homo sapiens from the Wallacean Islands.
Paul Storm (1995) investigated the pattern of evolution of modern man in Southeast Asia. He discovered that the populations of Southeast Asia could be subdivided in two types, the Sunda-type and the Sahul-type, on the basis of skull morphology. In his investigation he included two skulls from Flores. Flores is an island located in Wallacea between the Sunda and Sahul shelves. It has always been surrounded by water, even during periods of low sea level. The two skulls from Flores did not clearly resemble either the Sunda or Sahul skull type. Since Storm was most interested in the Wajak skulls from Java (Storm, 1995), he did not pursue the problem of the Flores skulls further. In the present study, the role of these two skulls in the evolution of modern man in Southeast Asia is investigated. To this end, twelve prehistoric individuals (including the two skulls and their postcranial remains) from five caves and one open site have been described. Comparison with prehistoric and recent remains from the surrounding areas have led to a new model for the evolution of Homo sapiens from the Wallacean islands. This model assumes a separate line of evolution for the populations of Wallacea.
Ribeiro de Santana, F., D.J. Cicimurri & J.A. Barbosa. 2011: 8, 6: 1-20. New Material of Apocopodon sericeus Cope, 1886 (Myliobatiformes, Myliobatidae) from the Paraíba Basin (Northeastern Brazil) and South Carolina (USA) with a Reanalysis of the Species.
Myliobatiformes (Elasmobranchii: Batoidei) is circumglobally distributed and consists of 26 extant genera within ten families. The oldest records of the group occur in upper Cretaceous deposits, and one extinct species, Apocopodon sericeus, is found in the Danian (Lower Paleocene) Maria Farinha Formation of the Paraíba Basin, Pernambuco state, northeastern Brazil. This taxon is known from isolated teeth and several partial dentitions in various states of completeness, and herein we describe a new, incomplete (lingual portion) Brazilian dental plate. Previously considered to be endemic to the Paraíba Basin, Apocopodon was recently identifi ed from South Carolina, United States. The sample consists of a nearly complete upper(?) dentition and numerous isolated teeth, and the material is indistinguishable from A. sericeus. The precise stratigraphic position and age of the South Carolina fossils is unknown, but based on the other associated Paleocene vertebrate fossils, we believe that the fossils originated from the Danian Rhems Formation. The South Carolina occurrence of Apocopodon represents a signifi cant geographic range extension of more than 7,000 km to the north of the type area, and the occurrence of this ray in such widely separated areas demonstrates the dispersion potential of fossil elasmobranch species. Analysis of the new specimens, along with reanalysis of all previously known Apocopodon dentitions maintained in Brazilian institutions, resulted in a revision of the morphological characteristics used to identify the taxon.
Sachs, S. 2005: 4, 1: 1-6. Remarks on the Pectoral Girdle of Hydrotherosaurus alexandrae (Plesiosauria: Elasmosauridae).
The pectoral girdle of Hydrotherosaurus alexandrae Welles 1943, an elasmosaurid plesiosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of California, USA, is redescribed. Some differences to the reconstruction presented in the original description, as well as newly discovered features of the pectoral girdle are discussed and a new reconstruction is provided.
Santi, G. & M. Rossi. 2005: 3, 3: 20-29. Ursus spelaeus from the Buco dell’Orso Cave (Laglio, Lombardy, North Italy): An Evolutionary Hypothesis.
Ursus spelaeus from the Buco dell’Orso Cave (Lombardy, North Italy) has some peculiar metrical characteristics that make it more close to Ursus deningeri rather than to the typical spelaeus. In particular, it is the smaller size that makes the difference. In this study, the ‘regressive evolution’ is proposed; a hypothesis linked to possible climatic cooling and presented here on the basis either of new data or in comparison with observed analogies on fossils from Italian and foreign caves.
Santi, G. & M. Stoppini. 2005: 4, 2: 7-18. Predator–Prey Interaction in the Permian of the Orobic Basin (North Italy). Behavioural Consequences.
Predator–prey interactions shown by ichnofossils are not very frequent and the interpretation of so–called ‘terminated trackways’ can represent a good opportunity of study. Especially the behavioural tendency of some vertebrates can be confirmed. In the Lower Permian of the Valtellina area (Orobic Basin, Southalpine, North Italy) a very peculiar development of arthropod walking–trails (Dendroidichnites elegans Demathieu, Gand & Toutin–Morin, 1992 and cfr. Heteropodichnus variabilis Walter, 1983) and the presence in suspicious position of Dromopus sp. footprints, should testify a possible predation attempt from the vertebrate maker on the formers. Thus, during the Lower Permian it should be also documented that the partial predator role in the Southalpine, was occupied just by the araeoscelid trackmaker of the Dromopus. Inside the trophic pyramid, probably with the Varanopus and Camunipes ones, Dromopus’s maker occupied the opportunist consumer role. Amphisauropus latus Haubold, 1971 and A. imminutus Haubold, 1971 makers played the primary consumer role, while a true carnivore is missing.
Signore, M., E.M. Bucci, C. Pede & C. Barbera. 2005: 2, 3: 25-30. A New Ichthyodectid Fish from the Lower Cretaceous of Pietraroja (Southern Italy).
Recent excavations in the Plattenkalk of the Civita di Pietraroja (Lower Albian, Southern Italy) have yielded a new representative of the Ichthyodectiformes (Actinopterygii: Teleostei). Although the specimen is still under study, a preliminary report appears to be warranted. Attribution to Ichthyodectiformes is based on the following characters: pronounced mandibular prognathism, triangular supraoccipital crest, hammer–shaped anterior part of the autopalatine articulated with ethmoid and maxilla. This specimen represents the second discovery of ichthyodectid in Pietraroja, and the first showing the anterior part of the body, including an almost complete and articulated skull. Due to its exceptional preservation, this specimen may represent one of the most complete Italian ichthyodectid, and one of the most complete specimens from European Albian as well.
Signore, M. 2004: 2, 2: 13-22. Sample Excavations in Pietraroja (Lower Cretaceous, Southern Italy) in 2001 and Notes on the Pietraroja Palaeoenvironment.
The fossil site of Pietraroja (Lower Cretaceous, Southern Italy) is known since the 18th century for its fossil fish (‘ittioliti’). Unfortunately, no serious attempt at systematic excavation or palaeoecological reconstruction has been done at this date, although some sample excavations have been conducted during the last two decades of the 20th century. In the first months of 2001, due to the building of a new water reservoir in the area of the site, some sampling excavations were performed to assess the possibility of building. The area examined was small, but still some interesting hints to the palaeoenvironment of Pietraroja have been unearthed. Although a complete sedimentological and palaeoenvironmental model has been published by the author and colleagues of the University of Napoli “Federico II” (Carannante et al., in prep.), some brief notes about the excavation and field evidence will be presented in this paper.
Stout, J.B. 2012: 9, 5: 1-7 (Proceedings TerQua Meeting). New Material of Borealosuchus from the Bridger Formation, with Notes on the Paleoecology of Wyoming’s Eocene Crocodylians.
The Eocene Green River and Bridger Formations of Wyoming represent lacustrine and fluvial environments noteworthy for an extremely diverse crocodylian fauna (at least eight species in seven genera). This paper discusses a fragmentary crocodylian jaw from the Bridger Formation, and also notes possible ecological partitioning among these sympatric crocodylians. The jaw fragment can be assigned confi dently to Borealosuchus based on the exclusion of the splenial from the mandibular symphysis and the presence of occlusal grooves between the alveoli, and it is referred tentatively to Borealosuchus cf. B. wilsoni. To examine the paleoecology of these crocodylians, variables based on habitat, body size, and inferred diet were formulated and species placed within respective categories. The research found that while there were more sympatric crocodylians in the early to mid Eocene of Wyoming than in any present-day biota, direct interspecific competition for resources is presumed to have been relatively low.
Syverson, V.J. & D.R. Prothero. 2010: 7, 1: 1-18. Evolutionary Patterns in Late Quaternary California Condors.
Pleistocene fossils related to the living California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) have been found in several locations in western North America. Different authors have either assigned these to the species G. amplus or considered them a chronological subspecies of G. californianus. We examined the morphology of the genus Gymnogyps from the late Pleistocene to the present, using hundreds of specimens from the asphalt deposits of Rancho La Brea (RLB) and 62 partial modern skeletons. The limb bones (using seven variables on each element) and skulls (using 13 variables) were quantitatively compared using bivariate and multivariate techniques. No significant size or shape change through time was apparent in RLB samples ranging from the late Pleistocene (35,000 radiocarbon years b.p.) to the early Holocene (9000 radiocarbon years b.p.), suggesting evolutionary stasis in the face of the climatic changes of the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Proximal limb elements and skulls showed patterns of variation consistent with a species distinction between the RLB specimens and modern G. californianus. This confirms Fisher’s (1944) contention that the RLB species is referable to G. amplus Miller 1911, and not referable to the modern species. A set of specimens from a 9000-year-old Indian midden in Oregon as well as the presence of Gymnogyps in early Holocene Pit 10 at RLB suggest that the modern and ancient Gymnogyps may have coexisted with each other as well as with humans, and not died out or become dwarfed with the extinction of the rest of the Pleistocene megafauna, as suggested by some authors.
Veldmeijer, A.J. & A.M. Hense. 2004: 1, 3: 14-21. Supplement to: Pterosaurs from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil in the Stuttgart Collection, in: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 2002, 327: 1-27.
The photographs of the pterosaur remains housed in the State Museum of Natural History in Stuttgart, Germany are presented as supplement. According to Veldmeijer (2002: 1) in the description of the material: “Bones of pterosaurs from the Cretaceous (Albian) of Brazil kept in the collection of the State Museum of Natural History in Stuttgart, Germany, are described and classified. One complete mandibula is assigned to Criorhynchus, three humeri and two ulnae are assigned to Santanadactylus and one ulna is assigned to Coloborhynchus. It proved not possible to determine various other bones more precisely than suborder of family. Few notes on the diagnostic status of post-cranial material in general and humeri in particular are presented.
Veldmeijer, A.J., H.J.M. Meijer & M. Signore. 2006: 3, 2: 15-29. Coloborhynchus from the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation, Brazil (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea, Anhangueridae): An Update.
Most of the toothed pterosaurs recovered from the Araripe Basin in Brazil (Santana Formation) have premaxillary sagittal and dentary sagittal crests. Some clear differences (and various less clear features) between the crested taxa have been used to classify the fossils, resulting in much scientific debate. On the other hand, a few potentially important features have been largely neglected so far. The present work presents an update of one of these crested taxa, Coloborhynchus, discussing the dentition and other previously unnoticed features in order to evaluate the systematic position of this taxon.
Veldmeijer, A.J. 2003: 0, 0: 1-13. Preliminary Description of a Skull and Wing of a Brazilian Cretaceous (Santana Formation; Aptian-Albian) Pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea) in the Collection of the AMNH.
The skull and wing of a pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Brazilian Lower Cretaceous (Albian) in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA displays the general anatomical features characteristic for these pterosaurs and is shortly described. The largely embedded skeletal remains are tentatively assigned to Brasileodactylus. More precise classification, other than genus, proved not possible.
Wedel, M.J. & M.P. Taylor. 2013: 10, 1: 1-34. Neural Spine Bifurcation in Sauropod Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation: Ontogenetic and Phylogenetic Implications.
It has recently been argued that neural spine bifurcation increases through ontogeny in several Morrison Formation sauropods, that recognition of ontogenetic transformation in this ‘key character’ will have sweeping implications for sauropod phylogeny, and that Suuwassea and Haplocanthosaurus in particular are likely to be juveniles of known diplodocids. However, we find that serial variation in sauropod vertebrae can mimic ontogenetic change and is therefore a powerful confounding factor, especially when dealing with isolated elements whose serial position cannot be determined. When serial position is taken into account, there is no evidence that neural spine bifurcation increased over ontogeny in Morrison Formation diplodocids. Through phylogenetic analysis we show that neural spine bifurcation is not a key character in sauropod phylogeny and that Suuwassea and Haplocanthosaurus are almost certainly not juveniles of known diplodocids. Skeletochronology based on the sequence of skeletal fusions during ontogeny can provide relative ontogenetic ages for some sauropods. Although such data are sparsely available to date and often inconsistent among sauropod genera they provide another line of evidence for testing hypotheses of ontogenetic synonymy. Data from skeletal fusions suggest that Suuwassea and Haplocanthosaurus are both valid taxa and that neither Is an ontogenetic morph of a known diplodocid.
Wolff, S.E. 2013: 10, 4: 1-11. Home on the Range: Biogeographic Distribution of Bison in Arizona.
The American bison are traditionally thought of as animals of the vast plains and grasslands, but paleontological and archaeological evidence supports the view that the biogeographic range of bison extended throughout the continental United States to include the American Southwest and Arizona. During the Pleistocene (2,588,000 BP to 11,700 BP), there are several paleontological and archaeological signatures of bison herds in Arizona. From approximately 12,000 BP to AD 1 there is no evidence for bison in the area. This changes around AD 1 when the climate became more favorable, and bison expanded back into Arizona. The last historic bison remains in Arizona date to AD 1650. From AD 1650 until the early 1900s, there are no bison documented in Arizona. Reintroduction of bison to Arizona’s national forests and ranches began in the early 1900s and continues to today. Bison can still be seen on the Arizona landscape demonstrating the temporal longevity of the biogeographic distribution of bison in Arizona.
Yun, C.-g. 2020: 17, 2: 1-13. A Subadult Frontal of Daspletosaurus torosus (Theropoda: Tyrannosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada with Implications for Tyrannosaurid Ontogeny and Taxonomy.
An isolated frontal bone of Daspletosaurus torosus (Theropoda: Tyrannosauridae) is desecribed which was probably found in the Dinosaur Park Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta (Canada). It is important in terms of the first detailed osteological description of the frontal of Daspletosaurus torosus. The size and anatomical details of the specimen indicates the frontal belongs to a large subadult individual. This subadult frontal suggests that although ontogeny of Daspletosaurus torosus was generally similar to that of Tyrannosaurus rex, there were some distinct differences. Finally, certain features of this frontal bone indicate that some autapomorphies that have recently suggested for some tyrannosaurid taxa are inadequate due to their broad distribution within a clade.
Zheng, R., A.A. Farke & G.-S. Kim. 2011: 8, 7: 1-12. A Photographic Atlas of the Pes from a Hadrosaurine Hadrosaurid Dinosaur.
Hadrosaurid dinosaurs are abundantly represented in terrestrial deposits from the Late Cretaceous, as isolated elements, associated specimens, and articulated skeletons with soft tissue. However, identifi cation of isolated elements can be diffi cult in the absence of adequate reference material. Here we present a photographic atlas of the complete pes from a hadrosaurine hadrosaurid (possibly Edmontosaurus annectens) collected in the Hell Creek Formation of Montana.